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Zoom Functional Areas Diagram
I. Motor Areas (posterior part of the frontal lobes)
Primary motor cortex - precentral gyrus in the frontal lobe
Large neurons (pyramidal cells) allow conscious control of movement of skeletal muscles
The pyramidal cells’ long axons from voluntary motor tracts called pyramidal (corticospinal) tracts
Motor areas have been spatially mapped = somatotropy.

Premotor cortex - anterior to the precentral gyrus in the frontal lobe
Regions controls learned motor skills that are repeated or patterned
Also coordinates the movements of muscles simultaneously and\or sequentially by sending activating     impulses to the primary motor cortex

Broca’s area - anterior to the premotor area
Involved in directing motor speech.

Frontal eye field - anterior to the premotor cortex and superior to Broca’s area  
Controls voluntary movement of eyes.

II. Sensory Areas (parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes)
Primary somatosensory cortex - postcentral gyrus of parietal lobe (immediately behind primary motor cortex)
Neurons receive info (from sensory receptors, skin, and muscles) and identifies body region being stimulated
Endows spatial discrimination.

Somatosensory association area - lies posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex
Integrate and analyze somatic sensory inputs (e.g. temperature and pressure) into comprehensive evaluation.

Visual areas - occipital lobes contain primary visual cortex (receive information from retina) and visual association area (interprets information from retina).
Auditory areas - temporal lobes contain primary auditory cortex (receives impulses from inner ear) and auditory association area (interprets sound).
Olfactory cortex - temporal lobe in region called the uncus; enables conscious awareness of odors.
Gustatory cortex - parietal lobe deep to temporal lobe; involved in perception of taste.
III. Association Areas
Somatosensory cortex - posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex
Somatosensory cortex and each special sensory area have nearby association areas with which they communicate
The association areas, in turn, communicate with the motor cortex and with other sensory association areas to analyze, recognize, and act on sensory inputs.

Prefrontal cortex - anterior portions of frontal lobe
Involved with intellect and complex learning (cognition) and personality
Tumors may lead to personality disorders - prefrontal lobotomy are performed in severe cases of mental illness.

Gnostic area - undefined area in temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes
Only one hemisphere
Receives input from all sensory association areas and stores complex memory patterns associated with sensation
Sends assessment of sensations to prefrontal cortex which adds emotional overtones
Injury to gnostic area causes one to become an imbecile - interpretation to various sensations/stimuli lost.

Language areas - found in Wernick’s area of temporal lobe of one hemisphere (usually left)
Involved in interpretation of language.

Functional Areas Diagram

I. Motor Areas (posterior part of the frontal lobes)

  • Primary motor cortex - precentral gyrus in the frontal lobe
    • Large neurons (pyramidal cells) allow conscious control of movement of skeletal muscles
    • The pyramidal cells’ long axons from voluntary motor tracts called pyramidal (corticospinal) tracts
    • Motor areas have been spatially mapped = somatotropy.
  • Premotor cortex - anterior to the precentral gyrus in the frontal lobe
    • Regions controls learned motor skills that are repeated or patterned
    • Also coordinates the movements of muscles simultaneously and\or sequentially by sending activating 
          impulses to the primary motor cortex
  • Broca’s area - anterior to the premotor area
    • Involved in directing motor speech.
  • Frontal eye field - anterior to the premotor cortex and superior to Broca’s area  
    • Controls voluntary movement of eyes.

II. Sensory Areas (parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes)

  • Primary somatosensory cortex - postcentral gyrus of parietal lobe (immediately behind primary motor cortex)
    • Neurons receive info (from sensory receptors, skin, and muscles) and identifies body region being stimulated
    • Endows spatial discrimination.
  • Somatosensory association area - lies posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex
    • Integrate and analyze somatic sensory inputs (e.g. temperature and pressure) into comprehensive evaluation.
  • Visual areas - occipital lobes contain primary visual cortex (receive information from retina) and visual association area (interprets information from retina).
  • Auditory areas - temporal lobes contain primary auditory cortex (receives impulses from inner ear) and auditory association area (interprets sound).
  • Olfactory cortex - temporal lobe in region called the uncus; enables conscious awareness of odors.
  • Gustatory cortex - parietal lobe deep to temporal lobe; involved in perception of taste.

III. Association Areas

  • Somatosensory cortex - posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex
    • Somatosensory cortex and each special sensory area have nearby association areas with which they communicate
    • The association areas, in turn, communicate with the motor cortex and with other sensory association areas to analyze, recognize, and act on sensory inputs.
  • Prefrontal cortex - anterior portions of frontal lobe
    • Involved with intellect and complex learning (cognition) and personality
    • Tumors may lead to personality disorders - prefrontal lobotomy are performed in severe cases of mental illness.
  • Gnostic area - undefined area in temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes
    • Only one hemisphere
    • Receives input from all sensory association areas and stores complex memory patterns associated with sensation
    • Sends assessment of sensations to prefrontal cortex which adds emotional overtones
    • Injury to gnostic area causes one to become an imbecile - interpretation to various sensations/stimuli lost.
  • Language areas - found in Wernick’s area of temporal lobe of one hemisphere (usually left)
    • Involved in interpretation of language.
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